Only in the 17th century Dutch traders began to drain the marshlands in Medoc in order to plant vineyards. First classification system for Bordeaux dates from 1855 when top chateaux in Medoc were ranked.
During 1875-1892 almost all Bordeaux vineyards were destroyed by Phylloxera. To rescue the wine industry native wines were grafted to pest-resistant American rootstock. The wines that responded best to grafting, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Semillion, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle, became the leading grapes in Bordeaux.